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  • 2016
    • Gerth, J., Rossegger, A., Bauch, E., Endrass, J., (im Druck). Assessing the discrimination and calibration of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment in Switzerland. Partner Abuse
      Abstract lesen

      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health issue; worldwide, almost one in three women is affected. Police involvement in IPV cases has substantially increased due to “pro-arrest” and “pro-charging” policies and the enforcement of laws protecting victims of domestic violence. In the course of these changes, several front-line instruments have been developed to structure police risk assessment and decision-making strategies in such cases. One of those is the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA). To investigate its validity in a Swiss police setting a total cohort of male IPV offenders was retrospectively assessed for a fixed time at risk of five years. The recidivism base rate was 32%, when recidivism was defined as subsequent police-registered IPV. Although ODARA scores were significantly correlated with IPV recidivism, they showed poor discrimination and calibration. Despite comparable base rates of recidivism, the Zurich sample scored significantly higher on the ODARA than the development sample. This mismatch of the expected and observed recidivism rates resulted in an overestimating of risk, especially in the two highest risk bins. Several reasons for those deviations, such as level of intervention, victim’s reporting behavior and the dynamic nature of IPV, are discussed. Keywords: intimate partner violence, partner abuse, validity, screening, police.

    • Urbaniok, F., Endrass, J., Noll, T., Rossegger, A. (2016). Die „psychische Störung“ im Massnahmenrecht aus forensisch-psychiatrischer Sicht. Aktuelle Juristische Praxis, 12, 1671-1679.
      Abstract lesen

      Die konkrete Bedeutung des Begriffs der «schweren psychischen Störung» als juristischer Anknüpfungstatbestand ist Gegenstand zahlreicher Kontroversen. Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, dass der Begriff sinnvollerweise nicht automatisch mit einer Diagnose nach ICD-10 oder DSM-5 gleichzusetzen ist. Die genannten Klassifikationssysteme wurden für allgemeinpsychiatrische Bedürfnisse geschaffen und haben schon mit Blick auf ihre Konzeptualisierung nur wenig mit der forensisch-psychiatrischen Logik gemein. Analog zur militärspezifischen Richtlinie für die Beurteilung der Diensttauglichkeit von Stellungspflichtigen und Armeeangehörigen, der «nosologia militaris», wird für die Forensik die Orientierung an einem Modell postuliert, das die spezifischen Bedürfnisse der Forensik abdeckt.

    • Goncalves, L. C., Endrass, J., Rossegger, A., Dirkzwager, A. J. E. (2016). A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate. BMC Psychiatry, 91, 1-11. doi: 10.1186/
      Abstract lesen

      Background:Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners’ mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms.Methods:Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data.Results:Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners’ mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables.Conclusions:The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners’ mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners’ mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental health assessment and creating a more beneficial correctional climate.Zum Artikel

  • 2015
    • Gerth, J., Rossegger, A., Singh, J.P., & Endrass, J. (2015). Assessing the risk of severe intimate partner violence: Validating the DyRiAS in Switzerland. Archives of Forensic Psychology, 1(2), 1-15. doi: 10.16927/afp.2015.1.1
      Abstract lesen

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of the Dynamic Risk Analysis System (DyRiAS) in assessing the risk of lethal and potentially lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Police records were used to retrospectively administer the DyRiAS for 171 IPV offenders processed by the municipal police of Zurich in 2008. The sample was then followed for between three months to five years. The ability of the six DyRiAS risk categories to discriminate between recidivists and non-recidivists was investigated using correlational and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. DyRiAS assessments were not found to produce significant associations with lethal or potentially lethal IPV. Furthermore, the finding that no non-recidivists were assigned to the lowest risk categories of the DyRiAS and none of the offenders of the highest risk category recidivated could not be attributed to intense police interventions. On the basis of the current study, the DyRiAS does not appear to be able to predict the likelihood of lethal or potentially lethal IPV. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings in larger samples and using prospective study designs.

    • Seewald, K., Rossegger, A., Endrass, J. (2015). Risikoeinschätzungen bei Sexualstraftätern im institutionellen Bereich. In J. M. Fegert & M. Wolff (Hrsg.), Kompendium: Sexueller Missbrauch in Institutionen – Entstehungsbedingungen, Prävention und Interven
      Abstract lesen

      Risikobeurteilungen bei Gewalt- und Sexualstraftätern fokussieren primär auf die Beurteilung des Rückfallrisikos von in Freiheit entlassener Straftäter. In der Praxis stellt sich aber auch immer wieder die Frage, mit welcher Wahrscheinlichkeit grenzverletzendes Verhalten während einer institutionellen Unterbringung zu erwarten ist. Welche Faktoren bei einer Risikobeurteilung berücksichtigt, und über welches Vorgehen die Aussage über das Rückfallrisiko einer Person generiert werden sollte, ist seit Jahren Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Diskussionen. Während Gewalt im Strafvollzug seit Jahren intensiv wissenschaftlich untersucht wird, lagen bis vor wenigen Jahren nur sehr wenige Studien über die Prävalenz von und Risikofaktoren für spezifisch sexuelle Gewalt im Strafvollzug vor. Eine erfolgreiche Präventionsstrategie zur Vermeidung sexueller Übergriffe innerhalb eines institutionellen Settings setzt die Identifikation entsprechender Risikofaktoren voraus.